African American Youth

"Lower class culture represents adaptations to [the] demands society makes for average functioning and the resources they command for day-to-day living by developing 'survival techniques' for function in the world of the disinherited."
-Lee Rainwater

Research Question: What cultural and structural implications impact African American youth's rate of educational attainment, teen pregnancy, and criminal activity, incarceration, and gang affiliation?


Orlando Patterson argues in the book, Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress, that culture is similar to that of a "tool kit" from which individuals utilize their current knowledge to construct a plan of action, which results in some form of behavior.
Patterson makes a distinct point that it is the structural and environmental factors have a direct impact on the conception of culture. It is our culture, or "tool kit", from which shape our behavior or modes of action. This is important point as to why more research and policies need to focus on the structural implications of certain behavioral outcomes.
Patterson's model, depicted below, shows that the transmitted culture from previous generations adapts within its present structural circumstances to become the modified culture. The structural and environment factors constrain the behaviors of the individual which in turn impacts the behavioral outcomes. Behavioral outcomes have a reciprocal relationship with the modified culture. This means that the individual's culture help to shape the individual's actions, but in turn the collective action of a particular group of individuals has a direct impact on the modified culture as a whole.
We are going to utilize this model shown below as a template for discussing the cultural and structural influences on behavioral outcomes, such as teen pregnancy, lower educational attainment, and the rise in incarceration, crime, and gang activity rates among the emerging African-American youth generation.

Definition of Culture: The acquired accumulation of socially transmitted and intra-generationall generated ideas about how to live and make judgments.




The Culture Model[1]
Screen_shot_2011-12-08_at_3.41.47_PM.png






Today's Black American Youth are the first African American generation to live in an integrated America after the progress of the Civil Rights movement. This generation has grown up in an era of women's equality, but has also seen sex and sexual orientation used as a weapon in political warfare. After the 1980s, this generation has witnessed rise of the prison, gang, and street cultures and has lived in economic turmoil.
The racial warfare and riots of the 1990s exemplified six keys points that have shaped a different African-American generation from the previous ones before:

1.) Class Warfare: This generation has fought for class and employment equality, whereas the civil rights
movement fought for racial equality.
2.) Police Brutality: As police tried to crack down on gang activity and illegal drug trade throughout the 1980s-1990s, police brutality sharply increased.
3.) The Explosion of Gangs and Drugs: When individuals cannot find employment often times they will resort to making a living in the extra legal sector by joining gangs to sell drugs.
4.) The Generation Gap: The life experiences of the older generation of African-Americans is in vast contrast to that of the Hip-Hop Generation or Generation X
5.) Racial Animosity: The pervasive notion that Whites still have the advantage over African-Americans and has been encouraged through the downsizing of affirmative action and political disregard for actual issues, such as rising unemployment, unfair housing practices, and poor educational opportunities.
6.) Deferment of the American Dream: This generation has witnessed the effects that social class, employment options, and educational preparedness predetermines how someone fares socially, economically, and politically. For many young African-Americans the prospects are limited and scarce[2]





Traditional Culture/ Ideology-- the Old Generation
  • West African societies have strong level of economic participation of women and female independence
    • This was reinforced by gender neutral slave system; often times females were valued over men for child bearing purposes
      tribal_leader.jpg
      Source: Google images
    • The selling off of sons and husbands increased kinship ties between remaining children, especially mother-daughter relationship
  • West African male status and pride through was demonstrated through virility and fertility
    • This was destroyed through deliberate breeding and lack of parental rights during slavery
Slavery (1640-1865)
Slavery lead to new cultural problems of:

Unsecured Paternity: the ambiguity of paternal rights, obligations, and responsibilities
  • 3/4 of all slave men didn't live with family or partner
  • No time to spend quality time with wife and children
  • No paternal rights granted to black men, slave owners held paternal rights
Matrifocality: Emphasize and value the Mother-Child relationship over the Father-Child relationship

Sharecropping (1880-1940)

lynched.jpgLynching in the South: ritualized ceremony of black male sacrifice symbolic of male castration and humiliation. Stress on men from public humiliation and lynching promoted violence and need for control over women and demonstration of their virility. However, after period of slavery African women are independent and becoming self-sufficent. (C.M.)

Mockery in popular culture and discrimination in the North. African American males are consistently denied opportunities to prove themselves to the broader society. (C.M.)

African Americans denied employment, property rights, and had to agree to shared property rights until debt was paid. This lead to a rise in early marriages and large families. Children were needed as laborers. However, in turn children became the breadwinners in the family. Children allowed little time, if any, for education. (C.M.)
The emasculation of African-American men leads to tension between the sexes.

Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968)
Screen_shot_2011-12-08_at_6.44.24_PM.png

Widespread political movements fighting for equality, voting rights, and a ban on racial discrimination practices.

Non-violent protests for rights; Martin Luther King Jr. leading the way until his assassination







The 1980s to the 1990s (and Present):
The Emergence of the New Black Youth Culture
  • Six Major Phenomena that have impacted Black Youth:[3]
  1. Rap Music(1980s-present) gave black youth a broader platform to connect and identify with each other, as a result it became a medium for a new national [black] youth culture.[4]
    • Rap media (Kircheimer)Screen_shot_2011-12-08_at_5.43.19_PM.png
      • 75% of rap music videos involve sexual imagery
      • 50% of rap music videos involve violence
      • African American Teens said they felt more pressure from the media to have sex than from their partners or peers
      • 72% of African American Girls said that the media portrays sex appeal as their greatest asset
        • Often portray men in power roles and women in servant roles
      • in video (or the rapper) is shown as a woman's only gateway to wealth, power, and fame
    • Girls who viewed rap videos for more than 14 hours a week were: (Kircheimer)
      • 3 times more likely to hit a teacher
      • 2.5 times more likely to get arrested
      • 2 times more likely to have multiple sexual partners
      • 1.5 times more likely to contract an STD, use drugs, or drink underage
  2. Globalization impacted the black youth and the labor industry when low-skilled occupations were outsourced to other countries. Outsourcing increased the demand for college-educated skilled workers while increasing unemployment of those of low-skills.The rise in unemployment and increase in occupational standards sent many African- Americans to seek employment in the underground economy.
  3. The new Screen_shot_2011-12-10_at_3.59.14_PM.pngBlack youth are the first African-American generation to have the ability to take advantage of the American Dream. However, this generation has seen first hand that the American Dream is only an illusion. Black youth are unable to access or attain new resources and opportunities to increase their education, social networks, or find better employment, and therefore, turn to the underground economy for survival. These hindrances become evidence to young Black youth that unless they "get rich quick," which are modeled by professional athletes, actors, and rappers, then they cannot become successful and therefore, seek the underground lifestyle in order to survive
  4. The War on Drugs campaign enacted by the Reagan Administration in 1982 shifted the focus from rehabilitation to punishment for drug offenses. As a result, the "Zero-Tolerance" and "Quality of LIfe" policing increased the brutality towards African American youth by police officials by 50% in 1994. The Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994, put in place by the Clinton Administration, supplied $10 billion for prison construction and increased punishments (to the extent of applying the death penalty) for crimes labelled as inner-city youth crimes, such as drive-by shootings and car jacking.
War_on_Drugs.jpg
Source: Google images
5. The media representation of African Americans after enactment of the War on Drugs, increased the conveyance of Blacks' participation in criminal activity. The collective coverage of African Americans depicted them as uncivil, barbaric, and inhuman while simultaneously humanizing Whites.

6. The overall shift in life after the 1980s were demonstrated in the economic boom of the 1990s, the rise in black youth (60% of American youth), the rise in underground activities, gun homicide, and the AIDS epidemic. The economic boom of the 1990s excluded African Americans and increased the percentage of unemployed Blacks, and resulted in an increased participation in the underground enterprises. The hopelessness that this generation has felt has contributed to the first ever increase in suicide rates of Black youth. Specifically, between the years of 1980-1995 suicide rates doubled for Blacks ages 15-19. The AIDS epidemic of the 1990s was attributed as the "black man's disease" because 60% of new cases were black teens ages 13-19 and lead to blacks having the highest rate of HIV/AIDS.

**The Stereotype Threat [5]
  • Social psychological problem portraying African Americans as inferior
    • Where a stereotype is relevant African Americans bear an extra burden or pressure
    • African Americans dis-identify from certain areas due to stereotypes

**Self Fulfilling Prophecy[6]
  • A self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when a person has expectations of another person and these expectations affect the behavior, which in turn creates the prophesied expectation
    • Behavior is affected by your beliefs about yourself, these beliefs are reinforced and sometimes formed by society
    • Prophecy states that you will only preform to the level of your beliefs
  • Example
    • If an African American student knows the stereotype that they preform lower on test scores they will carry extra pressure to preform and it will effect their confidence and performance negatively

Behavioral OutcomesTeen Pregnancy, Educational Attainment, and Deviant Behavior
Source: Google images
Source: Google images
Did you know...?

  • 60% of African American children are abandoned by paternal fathers (Culture Matters)
  • Nearly all births to non-hispanic black teen girls are to unmarried mothers. In fact, in 2008, 98% of births to non-hispanic black teen girls age 15-19 were to an unmarried mother. [7]
  • Among black women aged 15-19, the nationwide pregnancy rate fell by 45% from 223.8 per 1000 to 122.7 between 1990 and 2005, before increasing to 126.3 in 2006. Why the rise in teen pregnancy? (Highest rates in NY, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota (132-149 per 1000).[8]
  • African Americans (61 percent) were more likely than whites (54 percent) to view teen pregnancy as a big problem. Youth indicated that their peers were tolerant of early sexual activity but that their parents were not. While acceptance of early parenting was lower, more than half of the youths believed their peers thought it "OK" for someone to have a baby by age 17. The authors caution that the attention of public officials is needed to prevent a cycle of crisis to solution to complacency to resurgence.[9]
  • One in four African American children is born to a teenage mother[10]
  • African American teenagers make up only 14% of the adolescent population yet account for 29% of all adolescent births.[11]
  • Studies show that 65% of African American teen males have had sex without using a contraceptive at least one time[12]
  • 50% of African American females ages 13-21 will get pregnant before they turn 20[13]

Structural and Environmental Contributions to Teen Pregnancy among African American Youth


1.) Lack of Sex Education and Contraceptives
  • Studies have found that black teenagers were less well informed about basic facts and were less effective users than were whites of contraceptives [14]
    • Sex education aimed more towards white, middle-class teens. It does not take into account the social customs and attitudes about sex and contraceptives.[15]
    • Studies show that many black girls view pregnancy as an entry to adulthood and autonomy and sex education is focusing on abstinence only when it should focus on waiting longer and taking their cultural views into account.[16]
    • Through out history, females within minority populations have been subjected to forced or coerced sterilization. In recent years, several states have considered legislating forced contraception by making Depo Provera and Norplant, a long-acting contraceptive implant that was approved for usage in 1990, mandatory for young inner-city women on welfare, usually women of color.[17]
2.) Poverty and Single-Parent Homes
  • Non-marital birth rates tend to be higher for low-income individuals and Blacks when compared with rates for the general population[18]
    • In 1980, nearly 44% of black children under the age of 18 lived in female headed, single parent households, half of which were classified as below the poverty level.[19]
    • In 1985, the unemployment rates for black teens were 41.4 percent for males and 37.9% for females – can’t afford contraceptives[20]
    • The rate of adolescent pregnancy among African American adolescents of lower income families was 53% higher than among African American adolescents of middle-income families[21]

Stereotype threat[22]
Unfair assumption that African-American Teens only want to engage in sex and do not value relationships
  • African American Teen Study
    • 4/5 girls said they would rather get straight A's in school than be thought of as "hot" by young men
    • 3/5 males said they have more respect for girls who don't want to have premarital sex
    • 3/4 males said they would rather be in a relationship with no sex than in a relationship with sex
  • Low levels of aspiration and performance place them at greater risk to have children. Early parenthood may symbolize, for many, the ability to achieve in at least one area deemed to be important by their peers
  • Studies have suggested that black teens feel less stigma attached to out-of-wed-lock pregnancy
    • If you don't feel a stigma you're more likely to do it

Modification to the New Generation
    • Rap Music/ Media Influences
      • Derogatory Names towards blacks and women in music (Bitches, Hos, Niggas, Sluts, etc.)
      • Rap discusses issues of: racist policing, high incarceration rates, and high unemployment rates but all hostility is directed towards women
      • The "throw away" mentality depicted by Tupac and others ---> The idea that women are disposable objects for men's use
    • Family Structure
      • Marriage rate for African-American men decline, as the number of out-of-wedlock births increases (C.M.)
        • The black family has experienced fragmentation which has led to a rapid increase in female-headed households, most of which are at the poverty level. A large percentage of households are headed by women who were teenage mothers. In less than twenty-five years, black female headed households more than doubled. The mother has other things to worry about (food, water, shelter, money, etc) other than teaching her children about safe-sex and contraceptives
      • Constance Williams (1991), for example, identifies a common socialization pattern. Most of her sample of African-American young mothers in Boston grew upseeing early single parenthood as a way of life.(Life and Teenage Pregnancy in the Inner-City: Experiences of African-American Youth, Danziger)
      • African-American mothers prefer to be single mothers rather than compromising on the deeply held ideals of marriage by marrying someone who doesn't fit these ideals. (C.M.)
      • Post 1965- Increase of levels of alienation between women and men (increase racial inequalities in employment), defined "Male Black Pride" as satisfaction in sexual victories and the impregnation of women. (C.M.)

EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
AA_Youth_School.jpg
Source: Google images
Did you know...?[23]
  1. "On, average African American and Hispanic twelfth-grade students read approximately the same level as White eighth graders."
  2. "Of all racial groups, African American students are more likely to attend a school that does not offer advance placement (AP) courses."
  3. Nationwide, 7000 students drop out of school every day.
  4. " Nearly half of the nation's African American students, but only 11 percent of white students, attend high schools in which graduation is not the norm." [24]

Structural and Environmental Factors that Hinders African American Youth from Educational Attainment
1.) Differences in test scores
Results and possible explanations:[25]
  • Jencks and Phillips say, "African Americans currently score lower than European American on vocabulary, reading, and mathematics tests, as well as on tests that claim to measure scholastic aptitude and intelligence."
When it comes to testing Jencks and Phillips listed the following possible biases:
1) Labeling bias- appears when a test claims that is measures one thing, but really measures something else.
2) Content bias- occurs when a test has questions that favor one group over another.
3) Methodological bias- "Arises we assess mastery of some skill or body of information in a way that underestimates the competence of one group relative to another"


Self-fulfilling Prophecy**[26]

  • When a stereotype about a groups intellectual ability comes into play, that group will feel more of a burden than a group unaffected by an intellectual stereotype
    • Example: African American Teens test scores. When taking a test an African American student will most likely feel more anxiety because they are worried about confirming a very negative stereotype. This added pressure negatively effects their test scores.

2.) Differences between Inner City vs. Suburban Schools
- Psychological adjustment of inner-city African American children and teens are challenged by environmental risk factors. The risk factors include structural racism and high exposure to community violence and victimization.[27]
- Schools are more segregated today than they have been, and it is only increasing. [28]
  • Chemerinsky points out educational segregation by saying, "There has never been the political will to pursue equal educational opportunity."
  • Chermeinksy believes that desegregation and equal education will never happen as long as parents are able to move their children to suburban or private schools where the funding is available.
- Inner city schools have become crowded and resources are either scarce or outdated making the job of teaching a difficult task. [29]

- Golba said, " Students in affluent suburban schools are more likely to perform at higher level in part because they are provided with the scholastic tools that they need to do so. They have the most recent textbooks and technology (computers in their classrooms), invigorated teachers, and there are tutors and counselors available if support is needed beyond the classroom."

- Teachers take flight= Golba also said, "Teachers who want to give their students a quality education get frustrated with the poor conditions of inner city schools and end up looking for a school where they feel they can sufficiently do their job."



Behavioral Outcomes

Marijuana.jpg
Source: Google images
1.)
Differences in problems with students:

Problems by school types: [30]
School.jpg
Source: Google images


Urban
Suburban
Absenteeism
81%
35%
Disruptive class behavior
53%
30%
Drugs
53%
45%
Theft
48%
23%
Violence
32%
9%
Overall, the percent of discipline problems in all of the categories listed above are similar except for violence. However, the urban schools see a high percentage of problems in all of the categories.
gun.php
Source: Google images

  • [31] Some studies have shown that African American boys in (urban) inner city schools have turned to hyper-masculine behavior to try and gain respect from teachers or classmates. This may also help them gain and keep self-worth and protection.
  • Thomas, Townsend, and Belgrave said, "Behavioral and school adjustment problems are related to negative self-concept."
  • Thomas, Townsend, and Belgrave also said, "For African American children (and other children of color), a healthy identification with members of their racial group serves as a psychological buffer against environmental stressors such as, prejudice and discrimination."



- In the video above Geoffrey Canada was determined to change the way that African American children in Harlem inner city schools experience schooling. In fact his movement that began in the 1970's is still in effect today providing "social service and community-building programs to children and families in need. "[32]

2.) Educational Attainment[33] Black_High_School_Graduation_Rate.png
785graduation_cap.jpg
Source: Google images



  • From 1970 to 1995 the percent of the African American population that completed four years of high school or more was around the same percentage for both males and females. The average percent of African American males that completed four years of high school or more was 55.02% compared to 56.15% of African American females.
  • From 2000 to 2010 the percent of the African American population that completed four years of high school or more was also around the same percentage for both males and females. The average percent of African American males that completed four years of high school or more was 82% compared to 82.4%.
  • It is interesting that from 1970 to 2010 the percent of the African American female population that completed four years of high school or more was higher except for the year 2000.

3.) Drop out rates: [34]
In 2005, only 55 percent of African American teens graduated from high school on time, compared to 78 percent of Whites.[35]

The graph below shows two different kinds of dropouts. An even dropout (ED) rate is the percent of students who drop out in a single year without finishing high school. A status dropout (SD) rate is the percent of the population that have not finished high school and are currently not enrolled.
  • ED rates for African American males have gone up and down since 1980 and overall are higher than White males, but lower than Hispanic males.
  • ED rates for African American females have also gone up and down since 1980, but when compared to White females the rate is higher. When compared to the female Hispanic rate they are somewhat similar.
  • SD rates for African American males have gone up and down since 1980. The rate is higher than White males, but lower than Hispanic males.
  • SD rates for African American females have gone up and down since 1980. The rate is higher than White females, but lower than Hispanic females.
Black_HS_Dropout_Rates.png
dropouts-logo.gif
Source: Google images







4.) Hindrances to Employment [36]
  • A 2010 study of unemployment shows inequality
    department-of-unemployment.jpg
    Source: Google images
    • Unemployment rate overall in the United States = 9.7%
    • Unemployment rate for teenagers = 26.1%
    • Unemployment rate for African American teenagers = 41.1%
      • The worst unemployment for teens ever recorded
  • Harder to find work without previous job experience
    • Hard to get experience due to lack of jobs
    • The longer African Americans are kept out of the job market their chances only decrease for finding a job
  • Factors for unemployment among African American teens
    • Lack of job connections
    • Lack of transportation
    • Racial discrimination
    • Prejudice toward the younger generation
  • Effects future generations as well
    • Harder to raise children in a jobless environment that contributes to lack of wealth and therefor lack of resources for the child


Crime, Incarceration, and GangsDid you know?
  • Teen Crime:
    • Black youth were arrested for 25 percent of the crime and make up 16 percent of the youth population.
    • Black youth were arrested in 81 percent of gambling cases.
    • Black youth were arrested in 5 percent of DUI cases.
    • Black youth were arrested in 41 percent of all juvenile violent crimes.
    • Black youth were arrested in 30 percent of all juvenile weapons violations
*According to BJS figures, the rate of violent crime victimization in the United States declined by more than two thirds between the years 1994 and 2009:
31% or about 310,000 Black/African-American Gang members[37]
-7.9% of sentenced prisoners in federal prisons on September 30, 2009 were in for violent crimes.
A.A._Handcuffs.jpg
Source: Google images

-52.4% of sentenced prisoners in state prisons at yearend 2008 were in for violent crimes.
-21.6% of convicted inmates in jails in 2002 (latest available data by type of offense) were in for violent crimes.

Non-Violent
crime is defined as "any crime that does not harm anyone of physical harm or danger, such as fraud…drug use…etc."

Violent
Crime:

The United States Department of Justice Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) counts five categories of crime as violent crimes:1) Murder2) Forcible Rape3) Robbery4) Agravated Assault5) Simple Assault

  • Causes of gangs
    • Prison Culture--> Street gangs are formed in prisons and juvenile centers and maintained by those outside of the prison system
    • Gangs provide protection and sense of belonging
    • Learning disabilities & emotional disorders: 60% - 78% of Incarcerated gang members, both male and female , have emotional and learning disabilities.
    • School Failure and Truancy
    • No involvement in positive activities outside of school
    • Friends and peers with other delinquent teens
    • Early involvement in petty theft and behavioral disorders in grade school
      A.A._Youth_Gang.jpeg
      Source: Google images
    • Low Income- Quick source of money

Structural/Environmental Factors1.) Media influence- Blacks shown participating in criminal activity increases, Media coverage over certain events dehumanizing African Americans while humanizing Whites
2.) Globalization-outsourcing of jobs increases unemployment, and the rise in need for college-educated skilled workers encourages participation of the underground economy3.) War on Drugs- Reagan Administration (1982): Shifted focus from rehabilitation to punishment

    • Incarcerated Black population 1965: less than 200,000 and in 2002: over 2 million
    • 50% of Federal and State prison population is black
    • 1/3 of black men (ages 20-29) are in jail, on probation, or on parole
4.) Political Reform from 1984- PresentPolicies from 1984-1994 increased the US incarceration rate to being 2nd highest in the world per capita
      • 1984- Comprehensive Crime Control Act increased sentences for gun possession, burglary, and robbery
      • "3 Strikes You're Out" (1994) increased number of drug offenders to 1 in 4 of US prisoners
      • Violent Crime Control & Law Enforcement Act of 1994: gave $10 billion for prison construction and raised punishment to the death penalty for crimes labeled as inner-city youth crimes (such as, drive-by shooting, carjacking, etc) and promoted racial profiling of black youth.
      • "Zero-Tolerance" and “Quality of Life" policing on the rise --> Police Brutality rises to 50% in 1994

Stereotype Threat
  • Media and pop-culture
    • Famous icons portray themselves as gangsters
    • Send message that being African American is associated with being lawless
    • Get rich quick attitude
      • Illegal activity is the only way to social mobility

Behavioral Outcomes1.) Psychological harm caused by the Prison Environment:
1.) Men/Women Separated 2.) Strong rules the Weak 3.) Survival skills are vital 4.) Gangs formed for protection2.) Impacts on Family Structure


  • Single income: Teens must help make ends meet at home
  • Changes the ideals of manhood
  • Dysfunctional Relationships are modeled
  • Prison time separates families and those relationships become strained

Solutions:
1.) Equal Opportunity to Quality Education2.) Educational Curriculum Reform from Multicultural Perspective3.) Incentives for Teachers and Promotion of Healthy School Environments4.) Promotion of low skilled labor industries, employment opportunities, and training programs5.) Governmental Policy Reforms that don't target low income areas and minority groups6.) Take a preventative stance towards public policy rather than a reactive and punitive approach7.) The implementation and requirement of Cultural Competency Programs to raise awareness in workforce, community, and schools




Topics:Culture-Tim and Taylor Education- Justin Teen Pregnancy- Jordan Crime and Gang Activity- Jade


References:

  1. ^ Orlando, Patterson. "Taking Culture Seriously: A Framework and an Afro-American Illustration." Culture Matters: How Values Shape Human Progress. By Samuel P. Huntington and Lawrence E. Harrison. New York: Basic, 2000. 202-18. Print.
  2. ^

    Kitwana, Bakari. "America's Outcasts." The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture. New York: Basic Civitas, 2003. Print
  3. ^ Kitwana, Bakari. "The New Black Youth Culture." The Hip Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African American Culture. New York: Basic Civitas, 2003. Print
  4. ^ Kircheimer, Sid. "Does Rap Music Put Teens at Risk?" WebMD - Better Information. Better Health. Web MD, 3 Mar. 2003. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. <http://www.webmd.com/baby/news/20030303/does-rap-put-teens-at-risk>.
  5. ^
    **
    Aronson, Joshua, Carrie B. Fried, and Catherine Good. "Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence."Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38 (2002): 113-25. Print.
  6. ^
    **
    Wooding, Cynthia A. "Self-Fulfilling Prophecy in African American Students: Exploring African American Achievers." Yale University. Yale University, 2011. Web. 10 Oct. 2011. <http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2001/6/01.06.02.x.html>
  7. ^ "Teen Pregnancy and Childbearing Among Black Teens." National Campaign To Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. (2011): n. page. Web. 1 Dec. 2011.
  8. ^ . "U.S. Teenage Pregnancies, Births and Abortions: National and State Trends and Trends by Race and Ethnicity." Guttmacher Institute. Guttmacher , January 2010. Web. 5 Dec 2011.
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  13. ^ Stepp, Laura Sessions. "Black Teenagers Defy Pop Culture Portrayals - CNN.com."CNN.com - Breaking News, U.S., World, Weather, Entertainment & Video News. Cable News Network, 7 Sept. 2011. Web. 23 Oct. 2011. <http://www.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/09/06/stepp.black.teens/index.html>.
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  15. ^ Gibbs, J. "Black Adolescents And Youth: An Endangered Species." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 54.1 (1984): n. page. Web. 5 Dec. 2011
  16. ^ Gibbs, J. "Black Adolescents And Youth: An Endangered Species." American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 54.1 (1984): n. page. Web. 5 Dec. 2011
  17. ^ . "Women Of Color and Reproductive Justice: Feminist Campus. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec 2011.
  18. ^ Moore, M. "Sexual Intercourse And Pregnancy Among African American Girls In High-Poverty Neighorhoods." Journal of Marriage and Family. 63. (2001): 1146-1157. Print.
  19. ^ Moore, M. "Sexual Intercourse And Pregnancy Among African American Girls In High-Poverty Neighorhoods." Journal of Marriage and Family. 63. (2001): 1146-1157. Print.
  20. ^ Moore, M. "Sexual Intercourse And Pregnancy Among African American Girls In High-Poverty Neighorhoods." Journal of Marriage and Family. 63. (2001): 1146-1157. Print.
  21. ^ Belgrave, F. "Cultural, Contextual, and Intrapersonal Predictors of Risky Sexual Attitudes Among Urban African American Girls in Early Adolescence." Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 6.3 (2000): 309-322. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
  22. ^
    Stepp, Laura Sessions. "Black Teenagers Defy Pop Culture Portrayals - CNN.com."CNN.com - Breaking News, U.S., World, Weather, Entertainment & Video News. Cable News Network, 7 Sept. 2011. Web. 23 Oct. 2011. <http://www.cnn.com/2011/OPINION/09/06/stepp.black.teens/index.html>.
  23. ^

    "African Americans And Education." National Association For The Advancement Of Colored People. National Association For The Advancement Of Colored People, 2006. Web. 4 Nov 2011. <http://naacp.3cdn.net/e5524b7d7cf40a3578_2rm6bn7vr.pdf>.
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