external image centers_lgbtq_small.gif[1] Lesbian: a woman attracted to another woman
Gay: a man attracted to another man, often used as an umbrella term to include all LGBTQ people
Bisexual: also referred to as bi; a person who is attracted to two sexes or two genders, but not necessarily simultaneously or equally
Transgender: people whose psychological self (gender identity) differs from the social expectations for the biological sex they were assigned with at birth (one's body; genitals, chromosomes, etc.); not a sexual orientation
Queer: a political statement as well as a sexual orientation; used to explain a complex set of sexual behaviors (like a person who is attracted to multiple genders); commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to all LGBTQ individuals; older members of the LGBT community are hesitant to embrace this word because of the hatefulness and negativity once tagged with it[2]
Same-sex couples according to the 2010 Census; retrieved from http://www.pensitoreview.com/2011/10/09/were-number-one-los-angeles-leads-nation-in-gay-couples/
Same-sex couples according to the 2010 Census; retrieved from http://www.pensitoreview.com/2011/10/09/were-number-one-los-angeles-leads-nation-in-gay-couples/

According to the 2010 Census:
  • Iowa has a total of 3,698 same-sex couples
  • 970 of these couples are raising children
  • Non-white individuals in same-sex couples make up 7% of this population
  • 1,789 identify as male couples
  • 1,909 identify as female couples
Get this same information on all 50 states -- http://ourfamiliescount.org/map/

When responding to the sex question on the census, individuals must choose between "male" or "female".[3] Therefore, the census is not a good measurement method of transgenders in the United States.

Average age: No specific ages. People in these groups are all ages.
Sex: Lesbians are females, gays are males, bisexuals are males and females, Transgenders are males; females; or they don't identify with any sex (depends on what they choose), and Queers are do not identify with any sex.
Race: People in these groups are from all races.
Income: No specific incomes. People of theses groups have a wide range of incomes.
Education: All levels of education
Brief Background on How These Groups are Affected by Social Inequality:
Inequality affects lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer groups in a negative way. To be a member of one of these groups’ means being stigmatized as an outcast, as well as facing isolation, discrimination, violence, bullying, and the list goes on. Many wonder why it is so difficult for people of these groups to be accepted by society. Heteronormativity seems to be the biggest cause responsible for the inequality that they face. “Heteronormativity is the cultural bias in favor of opposite-sex relationships of a sexual nature, and against same-sex relationships of a sexual nature. Because the former are viewed as normal and the latter are not, lesbian and gay relationships are subject to a heteronormative bias.”

“Examples of heteronormativity might include:

-The underrepresentation of same-sex couples in advertising and entertainment media.

- Laws that actively discriminate against same-sex relationships, such as laws banning same-sex marriage.

-Religious bias against same-sex couples.”

Heternormativity is definitely a culture thing. It is what causes lesbians, gays, bisexuals, trangenders, and queers so much pain and struggles in everyday life. If heternormativiety didn’t exist, society would be more accepting and there would be less inequality. [4]


How are members of this community separated from the rest of the population?

Heteronormativity: the normalizing of heterosexuality and the pathologizing of being lesbian, gay, or bisexual (6)

How is this expressed in our society? How are heterosexual people privileged?

Privilege, Devon W. Carbado (pg. 396, Readings for Diversity and Social Justice)
  1. "Whether on television or in the movies, heterosexuality is always affirmed as healthy and/or normal.
  2. Without making a special effort, heterosexuals are surrounded by other heterosexuals every day.
  3. A husband and a wife can comfortably express affection in any social setting, even a predominantly gay one.
  4. The children of a heterosexual couple will not have to explain why their parents have different genders, that is, why they have a mommy and a daddy.
  5. Heterosexuals are not blamed for creating and spreading the AIDS virus.
  6. Heterosexuals do not have to worry about people trying to "cure" their sexual orientation.
  7. Rarely, if ever, will a doctor, on learning that her patient is heterosexual, inquire as to whether the patient has ever taken an AIDS test and if so, how recently.
  8. Medical service will never be denied to heterosexuals because they are heterosexuals.
  9. Friends of heterosexuals generally do not refer to heterosexuals as their "straight friends"
  10. A heterosexual couple can enter a restaurant on their anniversary and be fairly confident that staff and fellow diners will warmly congratulate them if an announcement is made.
  11. Heterosexuals are entitled to legal recognition of their marriages throughout the United States and the world.
  12. Heterosexuals can take jobs with most companies without worrying about whether their spouses will be included in the benefits package.
  13. Child molestation by heterosexuals does not confirm the deviance of heterosexuality.
  14. Heterosexuals can join the military without concealing their sexual identity.
  15. Children will be taught in school, explicitly or implicitly, about the naturalness of heterosexuality.
  16. Heterosexuals can adopt children without being perceived as selfish and without anyone questioning their motives.
  17. Heterosexuals are not denied custody or visitation rights of their children because they are heterosexuals. Heterosexual men are welcomes as leaders of Boy Scout troops.
  18. Heterosexuals can visit their parents and family as who they are, and take their spouses, partners, or dates with them to family functions.
  19. Heterosexuals can talk matter-of-factly about their relationships with their partners without people commenting that they are "flaunting" their sexuality.
  20. Heterosexual couples do not have to worry about whether kissing each other in public or holding hands will render them vulnerable to violence.
  21. Heterosexuals do not have to struggle with "coming out" or worry about being "outed".
  22. The parents of heterosexuals do not love them "in spite of" their sexual orientation and parents do not blame themselves for their children's heterosexuality.
  23. Heterosexuality is affirmed in most religious traditions.
  24. Heterosexuals can introduce their spouses to colleagues and not worry about whether the decision will have a detrimental impact on their careers.
  25. Heterosexuals can prominently display their spouses' photographs at work without causing office gossip or hostility.
  26. Few will take pity on a heterosexual on hearing that she is straight, or feel the need to say, "That's okay".
  27. Heterosexuality is never mistaken as the only aspect of one's lifestyle, but is perceived instead as merely one more component of one's personal identity.
  28. Heterosexuals do not have to worry over the impact their sexuality will have personally on their children's lives, particularly as it relates to their social lives.
  29. Heterosexuals do not have to worry about being "bashed" after leaving a social event with other heterosexuals.
  30. Every day is "Heterosexual Pride Day"."[6]
According to Heather Hackman, gender roles exist as firm categories that describe what it means to be "feminine" and "masculine" in this society. Examples: Men are tough, they're studs and they don't cry. Women on the other hand are emotional and take care of the family. Growing up, these gender roles are taught to everyone by gender socialization. People are gender socialized by their families, schools, peers and the media. Therefore, gender realities are actually social constructions; we learn them only through this society's socialization process. Someone's gender identitymay differ from the gender they were assigned with at birth, making it impossible for them to fall clearly into either the "feminine" or "masculine" categories. (7)
As people learn these things while growing up, they begin to think of them as the norm, buying into the mainstream stereotypes and expectations of individuals. So when people are socialized into a society that practices heteronormativity and supports the binary categories of femininity and masculinity, chances are they will grow up to think that heterosexual people who identify as the same gender they were assigned with at birth is normal. Anything differing from this norm is likely to be viewed as weird and unacceptable, making it hard for the members of the LGBTQ community to live a life without experiencing inequalities.[7]

LGBTQ in Schools

According to the National School Climate Survey conducted in 2009:
  • 84.6% of LGBT students reported experiencing verbal harassment, 40.1% reported experiencing physical harassment, and 18.8% reported experiencing a physical assault in the past year due to their sexual orientation
  • 63.7% of LGBT students reported experiencing verbal harassment, 27.2% reported experiencing physical harassment, and 12.5% reported experiencing a physical assault at school in the past year due to their gender expression
  • 72.4% reported hearing homophobic comments, like “faggot” or “dyke” on a regular basis at school
  • 61.1% of students reported feeling unsafe in their school because of their sexual orientation, and 39.9% reported feeling unsafe because of their gender expression
  • 29.1% of LGBT students reported missing at least one class and 30.0% reported missing at least one day of school in the past month because they did not feel safe
  • The reported grade point average of students who regularly experienced harassment because of their sexual orientation or gender expression was nearly half a grade lower compared to students who experienced less harassment[8]

Coming Out

Retrieved from http://www.equityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Coming-out-day.jpg
Retrieved from http://www.equityfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/Coming-out-day.jpg

Coming-out has evolved throughout history. Two events significantly affected the process of coming-out for questioning individuals. The 1970s Gay Rights Movement, beginning in New York's Greenwich Villages, drastically changed the coming-out process by speaking out about sexual discrimination and how it would no longer be tolerated by this community. In 1987, these efforts were further progressed by the foundation of National Coming-Out day. [9]
The "coming-out" experience looks different for everyone. When an individual "comes-out", they are identifying themselves as part of the LGBTQ community, while simultaneously disclosing this information to other people.[10] According to studies on LGB adolescents, at the age of 8 to 11, on average, individuals begin to become conscious of their attraction to the same-sex. The age of identifying with this attraction could on average, range anywhere from 15 to 17 years old.[11]

Even with the advancements of the acceptance of coming-out as a member of the LGBTQ community, this process still exists as a stressful and life alternating event for individuals. Hiding one's true identity can have serious effects on physical and mental health.[12] Today, adolescents who are questioning their sexual identity may not publicly identify themselves as a member of this community to avoid homophobic behavior or the loss of people close to them. (9) Research shows that youth questioning their identity normally disclose themselves to their friends before their families. (9) The coming-out experience can look different for families just as it does for the individual disclosing themselves. The feedback individuals receive from their parents can range from shock, anger, denial, to acceptance. (9) Sometimes individuals avoid coming-out to their families by extinguishing contact and preserving a condition of independence. (9) Some adolescents may feel anxiety over their coming-out impacting the financial support they receive from their families. [13]
One family member interviewed regarding a son identifying himself as gay said:

"For the average family it is like finding out that someone has cancer. It was just a real shock you know. I was very devastated. I will never forget. That night I was like... I was stabbed with a knife. It was very tough. We saw things as he grew up that was different. But once you hear it (laughs) it's like. It's the real thing." [14]

Coming-out also has the potential to affect people in their workplaces. In 2008, 37% of LGBT workers still lied about their identities, even in corporations known as nondiscriminatory.[15] The best results reported in coming-out experiences happen in accepting settings, whether that is the school, the work, or the family system. (12)


external image homophobia.jpgHomophobia is the hatred and/or fear of homosexuals. Many times homophobia can lead to acts of severe violence. These types of acts take place every day and happen all around the world. People engaging in homophobic behaviors will sometimes organize hate groups against homosexuals. In return, this belittles homosexuals and can even make them afraid to be themselves. Homophobia is sometimes viewed as other prejudices such as sexism and racism, however, homophobia is almost always overlooked by the government and considered not as serious of an issue.
Many times homophobia is taken out in verbal abuse; however, it is most dangerous when it leads to violent acts. Today in the US, the violent crime rate is decreasing, but the anti-gay crime rate is increasing. There have been numerous suicides by homosexuals in recent years due to them constantly being attacked and bullied. This shows how severe homophobic acts are today.
Discrimination dealing with homophobia can take place in many locations; schools, grocery stores, etc. One main reason of why homophobia is looked down upon is because people think that it is immoral to be a homosexual, and straight people are superior to gays. Even some churches maintain the belief that homosexual behavior is a sin because of the fact that it goes against the bible. Many other institutions view homosexuality as immoral as well. For example, until 1980, many psychiatrists looked at homosexuality as a mental disorder or an emotional distress. Homophobia is also seen in the media. The host of the show 700 Club, Pat Robertson, said that, "Many of those people involved in Adolf Hitler were Satanists, many of them were homosexuals - the two things seem to go together. It is very immoral and unfair to associate homosexuals with Satanists."

According to Warren J. Blumenfeld, homophobia does not just hurt members of the LGBTQ community. It hurts society as a whole. Homophobia discourages people from forming close friendships and relationships with people of their own sex. Homophobia also plays a large role into the social construction of gender roles; it inhibits people from acting in any way other than their assigned gender roles. (19) Heteronormativity and homophobia go hand in hand. The normalizing of heterosexuals creates a society stricken with homophobia.
Blumenfeld states that homophobia exists on four different, but interconnected levels:
  1. Personal: Individual, personal beliefs or prejudice that this community of people should either be pitied as people who cannot control the things they feel or hated
  2. Interpersonal: When a person's prejudice affects relationships among individuals, transforming prejudice into discrimination
  3. Institutional: The ways in which governments, businesses, and educational, religious, and professional organizations discriminate based on an individual's sexual orientation or identity
  4. Cultural: Social norms that help keep oppression prevalent [19]
Homophobia occurring at all of these levels shows how it could affect everyone in the society, not just the LGBTQ community.

Same-Sex Marriages


external image prop8%201.jpg
defending the sanctity of marriage comic
defending the sanctity of marriage comic


The Defense of Marriage Act, commonly called DOMA, was made law in 1996. DOMA defines marriage as a union between a man and a woman. No state can be forced to recognize any same-sex marriage as legal. Section 3, "In determining the meaning of any Act of Congress, or of any ruling, regulation, or interpretation of the various administrative bureaus and agencies of the United States, the word 'marriage' means only a legal union between one man and one woman as husband and wife, and the word 'spouse' refers only to a person of the opposite sex who is a husband or a wife",[22] has been found unconstitutional because it violates equal protection. President Obama has ordered the Department of Justice to no longer defend DOMA in court. Even though it's unconstitutional, it's still the law until it's repealed by Congress or it's been removed through a judicial process. [23]


There are currently seven states where same-sex marriage is legal. These are Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont.
Attached below is a list of all the states and the legality of same-sex marriage in them. It also shows if a state doesn’t have marriage, but has civil unions or domestic partnerships instead. The list also includes how each state recognizes gay marriages from other states.

To navigate the list ctrl+click on the links.

[24] [25] [26]

Tax Inequality

Because of the Defense of Marriage Act, the federal government only recognizes heterosexual marriages as legal marriages for the purpose of taxation. Even in states where same-sex marriage is legal both spouses need to file their federal income tax as single.

In states with legal gay marriage the state income tax is filed as married.[27]

Estate tax is also unequal, heterosexual couples usually have no taxation on leaving property or money to their spouse. In a gay marriage, they can be taxed up to 35 percent. The reason for this is also the DOMA preventing the IRS from recognizing same sex marriages. [28]

Same-Sexternal image tulsa-divorce-attorney.jpgex Divorces

There are very few laws and guidelines on the rights and
legal issues involved with same-sex divorces. Every state
has its own explanation on what needs to take place and be
done. Although there are few laws, many aspects of homosexual
divorce are the same as heterosexual divorce. Many homosexual
couples share things such as homes, bank accounts, cars, etc.
as do heterosexual couples, so the material aspect is the same.
However, there is very little legal guidance for how to "divorce."

Ways to go about divorce:

-Doing it without help: This is the least costly way to divorce.
-Hiring an experienced divorce attorney: Divorcing this way would provide each side to be legally represented. This option could get expensive.
-Hire a private mediator: In this option, couples receive professional guidance, and it is less epensive than hiring an attorney.[29]

There are few statistics of same-sex divorce because of the fact that gay marriage has not been legalized to establish very many.

"In a 2005 study it was found that 60 % of all opposite-sex marriages in the US ended in divorce in the first decade and 80 % in the first 20 years. The divorce rate has been on the decline since 1980, with 40% of all marriages ending in divorce in 1980, reduced to 31 % by 2002."

There are other aspects to take into consideration dealing with same sex marriage and divorce, such religious views and social pressure/acceptance. These factors may also affect same-sex divorce rates.
Having to struggle being able to marry in the first place, gay couples show a strong sense of commitment to marriage and each other.[30]

Medical Inequality

external image Relationship-Advice1-300x200.jpg

It turns out that, even medical hospitals treat members of these groups unequally. Usually patients that need to stay overnight have their husbands, wives, children, or other family members making important decisions regarding their situation, and just visiting their patient for company. This isn’t the case for gays, lesbians, transgenders, bisexuals, or queers. Not speaking for all hospitals of course, but some, refuse to let gay individuals stay with their partners or children. The reasoning behind this is that they are not real family members. This creates many problems for gay patients because then they don’t have anyone to help make the medical decisions and also don’t have anyone that can keep them company while they’re stuck in a lonely hospital. This also creates a lot of stress on the same-sex couples because in an emergency situation, they could have zero control or say in what is happening to their partners.

Examples of Hospitals Discriminating:

  • “A Bakersfield, Calif., couple rushed their child to the emergency room with a 104 degree fever. The women were registered domestic partners, but the hospital only allowed the biological mother to stay with the child. Although hospitals typically allow both parents to stay with a child during treatment, in this case, the second parent was forced to stay in the waiting room.
  • An Oregon man whose registered domestic partner was unconscious was told to leave the hospital room because it was time for family members to make decisions about his care. He was forced to plead his case before hospital administrators before being allowed to stay with his partner, who was dying.
  • A woman from Washington collapsed while on vacation in Miami. Although her partner had documentation of her relationship and a power of attorney, she claims hospital officials told her she wasn’t a family member under Florida law. The woman spent hours talking with hospital personnel in an effort to visit her partner’s bedside. Although she eventually prevailed, her partner’s condition had already deteriorated and the woman died. Because of the problem, the children the patient had adopted and been raising with her partner weren’t able to see her before she died.”
Other instances of discrimination are that heterosexual married couples aren’t required, most of the time, to provide documentation such as marriage licenses to prove that they are married, while other types of couples such as gays more often than not have to provide documents. Due to this, it is not uncommon for gay couples to lie and say they are siblings. It makes it easier and also helps if a couple has no documentation, which happens a lot. [31]

Personal Stories:

A 62 year old man, Tim Hare, has heart problems. His partner, Earl Ball married him in Canada in 2003. Hare had a heart attack and was being treated for it by a cardiologist. The cardiologist noticed his wedding ring and told Hare to have his wife come in. Hare told the Cardiologist he was married to a man and luckily the cardiologist broke the rules to let Ball in. This wouldn’t happen everywhere and most of the time in situations like this, the partner would be denied from coming in.

A 59 year old man, John Berry, was planning to marry his partner of ten months in New Hampshire. Unfortunately their plans were interrupted when his partner had a stroke. The partner was cared for in a hospital but when Berry had a disagreement with the doctor about treatment options he was banned from visiting. The father of the patient took over and moved him to a hospital in another state. [32]

Adoption and the LGBTQ Community

Childrearing remains an important aspect of life for many individuals and couples, but not only to heterosexual individuals and couples. When homosexuals are prevented from parenting and stigmatized as being inadequate parents, they are deprived of this important aspect of life. [33] The research that does exist on LGBTQ adoption inequalities suggests that individuals and couples from this community face considerable obstacles in the adoption process. They are often held to a higher standard than heterosexuals pursuing adoption, they experience homophobic and heterosexist behaviors from professionals within the adoption process, and post-adoption they receive less social support than heterosexuals. [34] It has been suggested that homosexual applicants must present themselves as similar to heterosexual applicants to enhance the chance of a successful adoption. In order to present themselves like heterosexual applicants, homosexual couples might play into traditional gender roles such as one parent staying home with the children while the other parent works. Lesbian and gay individuals and couples have been reported to be more willing than heterosexual individuals or couples to adopt children with significant problems such as physical, emotional, or behavioral ones. This may leave LGBTQ adoptive parents facing more stresses due to parenting a child that requires extra and special care. Bisexual, transgender, and queer adoptive parents have not yet received much attention in the parenting aspect, but it is thought many of the same issues apply to them as well. (34)

Despite the challenges and obstacles, children are raised by members of this community.
  • 40% of same-sex couples, ranging between 22 and 55 years old, are currently raising children; approximately 5% of these children are adopted (this approximates to nearly 2 million children being raised by same sex couples)
  • 3% of all adoptions from foster care are to parents from the LGBT community
  • Up to 2 million LGBTQ community members in the United States are interested in adopting [35]
Three different paths exist for the LGBTQ community to adopt children. An unmarried individual identifying as part of the LGBTQ community can adopt a child, known as single adoption. (35) Children can also be adopted by couples of this community. A same-sex couple, married or unmarried, can petition to adopt a child, known as joint adoption. (35) An individual can also adopt as a single parent and then the second parent can petition to adopt and share full parental rights of the child, known as second parent adoption. (35)

The normalizing and idealizing of heterosexuals creates a society that views heterosexual couples as the only viable option for childrearing. Beliefs held by society members view same-sex adoption as abnormal and wrong. Examples of these beliefs include:

  • The tradition nuclear family should remain the model family.
  • Maternal and paternal influences should be present if at all possible, as these have shown to be effective in the development of youth.
  • Children raised by homosexual couples are more likely to follow in their parents footsteps of sexual orientation.
  • A homosexual couple will give a heterosexual child unclear view of sexuality.
  • A child in the care of a homosexual couple will be subject to the same prejudices held against their parents. [36]
  • Children in the care of homosexual parents are more likely to be sexually abused.
  • Children raised by homosexual parents will not have a clear idea of their own gender identity.
  • Children raised by homosexual parents will not show difference in specific gender role behaviors.[37]
Although children raised by homosexual couples may face additional challenges, research shows that these children are no different than children raised by heterosexual parents in regard to their emotional development and ability to form relationships. The important aspect of childrearing is the parent-child relationship. (36) The American Psychological Association stated in 2004, that there was “no scientific evidence that parenting effectiveness is related to parental sexual orientation: lesbian and gay parents are as likely as heterosexual parents to provide supportive and healthy environments for their children.” (33)
gay blog: LGBT Adoption Rights by State (Infographic) Retrieved fromhttp://unicornbooty.com/blog/2011/10/26/lgbt-adoption-rights-by-state-infographic/
gay blog: LGBT Adoption Rights by State (Infographic) Retrieved fromhttp://unicornbooty.com/blog/2011/10/26/lgbt-adoption-rights-by-state-infographic/

Lutheran Group Won't Let Gay Chicago Couple Adopt Homeless Boy: MyFoxCHICAGO.com


LGBTQ individuals experience heterosexism when their sexualities do not receive recognition on forms or documents in the adoption process. Heterosexism also affects this community on an institutional level when laws are in place that only grants the right to adopt to heterosexuals. (34)

When introducing a bill in 2003 to ban homosexuals from foster parenting, Texas Legislator Robert Talton stated, “If it was me I would rather leave kids in orphanages as such—this is where they are now if they’re not fostered out. At least they have a chance of learning the proper values.” These kinds of comments and attempts are not limited to Texas. In 2005, lawmakers in Alabama, Arkansas, Indiana, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia all introduced bills that would limit and restrict homosexual’s rights to parent. (33)

Overall Solutions

One of the main solutions to help solve all of the above categories of LGBTQ inequality is raising awareness. Many people have misconceptions about the LGBTQ community because they believe they do not "fit in" to what society views as normal. Today's society places a large importance on the binary categories of male and female and the strereotypical gender roles that go along with them. Our society views the only acceptable relationship to be between a male and female. If an individual challenges any of these normalizations, they are looked at as being an outcast and are basically dehumanized. In order to make situations better for individuals of this community and change society's perceptions, there needs to be more education on this topic. One way this can be done is through the media. More images of individuals and families of this community portrayed would make this community more visible in our society and would begin to weaken their "abnormal" reputation.
Society only gives the option of "male" or "female." Some people in this community do not identify as being a male or female so this puts them in a difficult situation. The "male or female" aspect is seen everyday. When going to the doctor and filling out forms, the only options that exist are "male" and "female". Fast food restaurants give girls "girl" toys and boys "boy" toys. This also happens when taking exams. Many tests ask individuals to mark "M" for male or "F" for female. Very few gender neutral bathrooms exist, so when choosing which bathroom to enter, there are typically only two choices, "male" or "female". These are only a few examples. If there was not such a big importance placed on gender and heterosexual relationships, this community would not have to fight for equal rights. It all comes back to the topic of awareness. If there was awareness throughout society these groups of people would not have to fight to be who they are. Creating awareness would also encourage people to vote. If people who care about the equal rights of this group vote, there will be a better chance of progressive leaders that believe in equality being elected.

  1. ^ Picture retrieved from http://www.ctschicago.edu/index.php/mnuacademicprograms/cts-centers/110-lgbtq
  2. ^ Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer. (n.d.). In Gender Equity Resource Center. Retrieved from http://geneq.berkeley.edu/lgbt_resources_definiton_of_terms
  3. ^ Age and Sex Composition. (2010). 2010 Census Briefs [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-03.pdf
  4. ^

    Head, T. (n.d.). Heteronormativity. Retrieved from http://civilliberty.about.com/od/gendersexuality/g/heteronormative.htm
  5. ^ Video retrieved from www.youtube.com
  6. ^ Carbado, Devon W. 2010. "Privilege". Ed. by Adams et al. Readings for diversity and social justice. (2 ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Pg. 396-398.
  7. ^

    Hackman, Heather. 2010. "Introduction to Sexism". Ed. by Adams et al. Readings for diversity and social justice. (2 ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Pg. 316-317.
  8. ^ Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network. (2009). 2009 National School Climate Survey: Nearly 9 out of 10 LGBT Students Experience Harassment in School [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.glsen.org/cgi-bin/iowa/all/library/record/2624.html?state=research&type=research
  9. ^

    Riley, B. (2010). Glb adolescent's "coming out". Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23(1), 3-10.
  10. ^

    Avert: Averting HIV and AIDS. (n.d.). Coming out. Retrieved from http://www.avert.org/coming-out.htm
  11. ^ Iowa Pride Network. (n.d.). Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.iowapridenetwork.org/about/faq.html
  12. ^

    Park, A. (2011, July 04). Why coming out isn't always a good thing. Time, 178(1), 23-23.
  13. ^ Rasmussen, M. (2004). The problem of coming out. Theory Into Practice, 43(2).
  14. ^

    Baptist, J., & Allen, K. (2008). A family’s coming out process: Systemic change and multiple realities. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 30(2), 92-110.
  15. ^

    Clinton, K. (2011, July). The 10 percent problem. The Progressive, 75(7), 41-41.
  16. ^

    Picture retrieved from http://www.cafemom.com/answers/1035276/Do_you_think_being_homosexual_is_a_choice_or_something_that_happens_to_us_the_we_cannot_control
  17. ^

    Zagger, Z. (2011, May 17). Hate crimes against LGBT people rise worldwide: UN rights chief. Jurist. Retrieved from http://jurist.org/paperchase/2011/05/hate-crimes-against-lgbt-people-rise-worldwide-un-rights-chief.php
  18. ^

    Anti-Defamation League. (2001). Homophobia. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/hate-patrol/homophobia.asp
  19. ^ Blumenfeld, Warren J. 2010. "How Homophobia Hurts Everyone". Ed. by Adams et al. Readings for diversity and social justice. (2 ed.). New York, NY: Routledge. Pg. 378, 380-384.
  20. ^

    Picture retrieved from http://www.babble.com/CS/blogs/strollerderby/archive/tags/protests/default.aspx
  21. ^

    Picture retrieved from http://imgace.com/pic/2011/10/defending-the-sanctity-of-marriage-comic/
  22. ^

    "Defense of Marriage Act". United States Government Printing Office. September 21, 1996. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
  23. ^ The United States Department of Justice. (2011). Statement of the Attorney General on Litigation Involving the Defense of Marriage Act. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2011/February/11-ag-222.html
  24. ^

    Lambda Legal. (n.d.). In your state [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.lambdalegal.org/states-regions/
  25. ^ Same-sex marriage status in the United States by state. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_marriage_status_in_the_United_States_by_state
  26. ^ Defense of Marriage Act. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defense_of_Marriage_Act
  27. ^

    Lambda Legal. (n.d.). Tax Considerations for Same-Sex Couples [Data file]. Retrieved from http://www.lambdalegal.org/publications/tax-considerations
  28. ^

    Zajaz, A. (2011, August 4). IRS to Gay Newlyweds: Not So Fast. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/irs-to-gay-newlyweds-not-so-fast-08042011.html
  29. ^

    Meyer, C. (n.d.). When It Comes To Gay “Divorce” What Are My Options? Retrieved from http://divorcesupport.about.com/od/gayandlesbianissues/f/gaydivorce.htm
  30. ^

    Life Tips. (n.d.). Gay Marriage Facts & Statistics Tips. Retrieved from http://gaymarriage.lifetips.com/cat/64319/gay-marriage-facts-statistics/index.html
  31. ^

    Parker-Pope, T. (2009, May 12). How Hospitals Treat Same-Sex Couples. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/12/how-hospitals-treat-same-sex-couples/
  32. ^

    Parker-Pope, T. (2010, April 19). For Same-Sex Couples, Equality in the Hospital. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/04/19/for-same-sex-couples-equality-in-the-hospital/
  33. ^

    Sanchez, J. (2005, August/September). All happy families: The looming battle over gay parenting. Reason, 37(4).
  34. ^ Ross, L., Epstein, R., Goldfinger, C., Steele , L., Anderson, S., & Strike, C. (2008). Lesbian and queer mothers navigating the adoption system: The impacts on mental health. Health Socioology Review, 17(3), 254-266.
  35. ^ Creating a Family. (2011). Adoption and the GLBT Community. Retrieved from http://www.creatingafamily.org/adoption-resources/adoptionaglbtcommty.html
  36. ^ International Debate Education Association. (2009). Adoption of Children by Same Sex Couples. Retrieved from http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=51
  37. ^ American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2011). Children with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_with_lesbian_gay_bisexual_and_transgender_parents
  38. ^

    Video retrieved from http://www.myfoxchicago.com/dpp/news/special_report/matt-nalett-fred-steinhauer-lutheran-child-family-services-gay-dads-adopt-adoption-20101108